Please remember that the following topic is for very advanced readers and is advised to read only after having a thorough knowledge of basics of Astronomy and Astrology
I would like to invite an open discussion on Graha Yuddha (GY) i.e., planetary war which I feel a must for all those dedicated seekers of jyotish
Before I demonstrate this (one of the main features of shadbala calculation), I would like to reiterate (through various sources) the underlying principles required to assess or evaluate GY under three categories 1)Siddhanta 2)Hora 3)Samhita
From Surya Siddhanta, chapter 7 Grahayutyadhikara, stanzas 1,2, 13, 14, 19 to 24, it is state that
Stanza 1: Of the star-planets(tara grahas) there take place, with one another, encounter(yuddha) and conjunction (samagama); with the moon, conjunction (samagama); with the sun. helical setting(astamana)
Stanza 2: When the longitude of the swift-moving planet is greater than that of the slow one, the conjunction (samyoga) is past (i.e., over); otherwise, it is to come; this is the case when the two are moving eastward (or in same direction); if, however, they are retrograding (vakrin), the contrary is true
Stanza 13: The diameters upon the moon's orbit of Mars, Saturn, Mercury, and Jupiter, are declared to be 30, increased successively by half the half; that of Venus is 60
Stanza 14:These, divided by the sum of radius and the fourth hypothenuse, multiplied by two, and again multiplied by radius, are the respective corrected (sphuta) diameters: divided by fifteen, they are the measures (mana) in minutes
Stanza 19:An encounter (yuddha) is called "ray-obliteration" (ansuvimarda) when there is mutual mingling of rays: when the interval is less than a degree, the encounter is named "dexter" (apasavya) - if, in this case, one be faint (anu)
Stanza 20: If the interval be more than a degree, it is "conjunction" (samagama), if both are endued with power (bala). One that is vanquished (jita) in a dexter encounter (apasavya yuddha), one that is covered, faint (anu), destitute of brilliancy,
Stanza 21: One that is rough, colorless, struck down (vidhvasta), situated to the south, is utterly vanquished (vijita). One situated to the north, having brilliancy, large, is victor (jayin) - and even in the south if powerful (balin)
Stanza 22: Even when closely approached, if both are brilliant, it is "conjunction" (samagama): if the two are very small, and struck down, it is "front" (koota) and "conflict" (vigraha), respectively.
Stanza 23: Venus is generally victor, whether situated to the north or to the south, perform in like manner the calculation of the conjunction (samyoga) of the planets with the moon
Stanza 24: Unto the good and evil fortune of men is this system set forth: the planets move on upon their own paths, approaching one another at a distance(a result or phala part of grahayuti is stated here)
In addition to this we have in Siddhanta Ganakaandam, where it is clearly mentioned (agreeing to the views of Suryasiddhanta) that graha yuddha occurs between any two of Kujadi pancha grahas when they are within one degree(sufficient) and one sign(necessary) but not in adjancent signs. Likewise, the maximum possible planetary wars are 10 and 1 as minimum
In Chapter 3 (Bala-adhyaya) Stanza 17 of Sripati Jataka Karmapaddhati (commentary by Suryadeva yajwa of 1192 AD) it is stated that for any two yuddha grahas, add the total of shadbalas of the two planets obtained upto Ayana bala (not upto hora bala as said by Mr BV Raman in his graha and bhava bala) of Kalabala separately, take difference between their totals and divide it by the difference between their bimba-parimanas (dimension of their sizes). The result obtained is called Yuddha bala. Add this yuddha bala to the total obtained upto Ayana bala of jita (one who is north in latitude i.e., victor) and deduct from the total obtained upto ayana bala of vijita (one who is in south latitude to jita - defeated). The sizes of bimba parimanas are 2 and increased by half for the planets Kuja, Sani, Budha, Guru and Sukra respectively. That is Kuja's parimana is 2 and that of Sukra is 4 (not the values given by Mr BV Raman - which if applied will result in beyond the limit theoritically imposed by Sripati acharya- please see Suryasiddhanta by Rev. Burgess or sanskrit version of Chaukhamba press by Pt Madhav Prasad Purohit)
Stanza 32 of 4th Khanda of "Uttara Kalamritam" of Kalidas (who is one among nine gems besides Varahamihira in the court of King Vikramaditya) says : Union (yuti, samyoga or yoga) of planets is only valid when the distance between any two grahas is =or
In such yoga, the result will be (sufficient condition) fruitful or create raja yoga (depending upon strength by applying ROT) if one of the uniting planets rule either quandrant or trine houses and the other contrary to the former.
In such a background, we have three out of four possible states of raja yogas which are (this is outcome of philosophy of ROT)
1) If both are less in strength, a weak yoga will form
2) When only one is stronger, a medium yoga (in this case there will be two combinations) will occur
3) When two are stronger, a top grade yoga will occur
To know the cut-off(maximum strength that any planet can get theoritically) and critical value (a pre-requiste value that is required while analysing any yoga, longevity selection etc as per Varahamihira's school) one should be well versed in Sripati's method of shadbala and bhavabala calculations
However, I am giving hereby as per 5th Chapter (Ayurdayadhaya) of Sripati Jataka Karmapaddhati (commentary by Suryadeva yajwa of 1192 AD) the critical value of graha or bhava bala as 480 shatiamsas or 8 rupas
In Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira, Chapter 18 Stanza 1 (Sasi graha Samagamadhyaya), it is stated that : When the moon moves, wherever possible, to the north of stars or planets i.e., keeps them to her right side, it is called her dextral movement and augurs well for kings (or mankind). If she moves to the south of them, she does not bring happiness to them.
I will discuss further clearly all the above concepts with the help of Adolf Hitler's horoscope which is the best example capable of illustrating all the three concepts i.e., yuti, yuddha and samagma but not infamous one (hope after my clarification it will be famous in the circle of dedicated astrologers atleast on subject poinf of view) in my tommorow's post
As I discussed in my earlier post the technical rules that are required for identifying Graha Yuddha(GY) I will summarise briefly again here some definitions or parameters which are required for our further discussion
Tara or Prakasika Grahas: Sun and Moon are called taragrahas
Aprakasika Grahas: Mars, Saturn, Mercury, Jupiter and Venus (in the increasing order of bimba parimanas) are called Kuja-adi pancha grahas or Aprakasika Grahas
Chaya Grahas: Nodes i.e., Rahu and Ketu are called Chaya or Shadowy Grahas
Combustion or astamana:
Whenever the six planets other than Sun come in proximity of Sun they get combusted. The degrees of proximity for them are given in Suryasiddhanta(SS) which I will give them for future reference
For exterior or superior planets
Mars: + or - 17
Jup: + or - 11
Sat: + or - 15
For internal or inferior planets
Merc: + or - 12 when retrograde and + or - 14 when direct
Ven: + or - 8 when retrograde and + or - 10 when direct
Whenever an aprakasika graha is overtaken by Moon by < or = 1 degree then there takes place a phenomena called Samagama. In such samagama, if the aprakasika graha is situated south to Moon it results in benefic or subha and malefic or asubha samagama when situated to North.
Conjunction, union or Yuti:
This topic is a must for all beginners and professionals too - as I have found many astrologers either ignorant or overlook this and venture predictions which will definitely fail
Whenever a swift moving planet i.e., seegra graha is moving towards a slow moving planet i.e., manda graha (this can happen either in direct or retrograde motion) and is within < or = to 12 degrees proximity of a manda graha, then there takes place conjunction or yoga of grahas. This is purely a astronomical part.
The following list (in the increasing order of swiftness) will give the details of swift moving planets:
From the above list it is evident that Saturn and Moon are the slowest and fastest moving heavenly bodies respectively, whereas Ascendant which is a consequence of rotation of earth on its own axis is more faster than Moon.
However, from astrological point of view, more the proximity more the strength is gained by such yoga. Such yuti is viewed in Parasara school as either good or bad according to the functional rulership obtained by those two planets.
Whereas in Varahamihira's school nothing is particularly mentioned but taken as only planets union as there is no concept of functional rulership in it.
Irrespective of opinion of different schools, we have to take note of one important aspect from this conjunction rules which is unanimously accepted by all schools. This gives an important thumb-rule required to identify the nature of Mercury i.e., either natural malefic or benefic. Because, if one is not well versed in Siddhanta will surely fail to identify the nature of mercury and I haven't found any one single book of modern publications mentioning clearly the nature of Mercury and worse still some books have also failed in identifying the nature of Moon. Reason for saying so is that, all books commonly mention that whenever Mercury is associated with benefic/s is termed benefic and when associated with malefic/s is termed malefic, but they do not resolve the condition when Mercury is in association with both malefic and benefic. Also they do not mention the condition/s that are required to know about a association or yuti. To resolve such situation, it is only possible for one who is either fortunate to attract able guru or fulfil the condition Sraddhavaan labhate jnanam.
Before that, I would like to give some principles that are required to know malefic, benefic and neutral nature of planets which depends on context which we are in. They are
1) Universal context:
In this context, Sun, Mars and Saturn (which are called Nitya papa grahas) are natural malefics (in the increasing order) and Moon, Merc, Venus and Jup (in the increasing order) are natural benefics (which are called Nitya subha grahas) and nodes have no place. This context is so called becasue it is considered on the ciriteria independent of any lagna or astronomical state. This phenomenon is widely used in Varahamihira's school
2) Astronomical context:
In this context, besides three nitya papa grahas, Moon with Paksha-bala <30 -="-" 7th="7th" 90="90" and="and" b="b" begining="begining" bright="bright" by="by" dark="dark" degrees="degrees" end="end" first="first" from="from" half="half" i.e.="i.e." mercury="mercury" of="of" or="or" second="second" shatiamsas="shatiamsas" staying="staying" sun="sun" the="the" to="to">when associated30>
This means, among the four nitya subha grahas mentioned in Universal context, the two fastest viz., Moon and Mercury (which are again the only two planets that have a single sign for both exaltation and moolatrikona) are separated from them and hence they are called Sandharbha-suddhi grahas or contextual planets
3) Functional context:
This is a concept of Parasara's school where the lagna comes into picture, and depending upon the sign of lagna, the 7 planets mentioned in the above two contexts can change by certain rules and assume benefic and malefic nature
Having said about the three contexts, I would like to resolve the nature of Mercury in Astronomical context as shown below:
2) If Mercury participates in Graha Yuddha by staying behind by < 1 degree longitude (irrespective of latitude), then also it assumes the nature of the planet with which it is in war
3) If Mercury participates in Graha Yuddha by staying ahead by < 1 degree longitude (irrespective of latitude), then the nature will not assume that of the planet which is behind but only that which is ahead of mercury within 12 degrees
4) Rule 2 and 3 will apply when Mercury is in direct motion, and contrary is true if is in retrograde motion
5) Irrespective of Combustion, Mercury's nature should be determined in accordance with the rules of conjunction with Sun. This implies, Mercury can be simultaenously combust and benefic or combust and malefic.
6) As Moon is a malefic whenever she is + or - 90 degrees from Sun, and in such case, whenever Moon is behind Mercury(who is either direct or reverse) and no planets in between them, there will be a union of Moon with Mercury. As such, Mercury will be a malefic. If Moon crosses over Mercury by even a fraction of a second there may be a samagama but not union, therefore in such case, rules 1 to 5 will apply to determine the nature of Mercury
7) If all the above rules do not apply then Mercury should be treated as isolated one, which according to the Universal context will be a benefic